This is Chinese traditional martial arts. Chinese prouncation of ‘martial arts’ is WuShu. WuShu is a regular event of the Asian Games.
What is Wushu?
Wushu's the collective term for the martial art practices that originated and developed in China. Over its long history, wushu developed into numerous distinct styles and systems, each incorporating their own techniques, tactics, principles and methods, as well as the use of a wide variety of traditional weapons.
Wushu as a sport came into its own as two distinct disciplines, one defined by performance routines and the other a full-contact combat sport.
- Related Organizations
Related Organizations Name Korea Wushu Association Homepage http://wushu.sports.or.kr
The origins of wushu may be traced back to early man and his struggle for survival in the harsh environment during Bronze Age (3000-1200 BC), or even earlier, a struggle that led to the development of techniques to defend against both wild animals and other human beings. The application of weapons eventually came to form the roots of wushu’s weapon-based techniques, and contests of strength and technique (such as jiaodi, an early Chinese form of wrestling) enhanced the development of barehand combat systems.
From the Shang Dynasty (approx.1556-1046 BC) through Warring States period (481-221 BC) wushu further evolved specialized armed and unarmed combat methods, and sophisticated weapons for warfare began to emerge. During these times, wushu also became popular among the common people as a means of self-defense and health improvement, as well as entertainment; ancient Chinese philosophy famously espoused the culturing of both literary and martial arts (“wen wu”).
Fast-forward to 495 A.D when the Shaolin Temple, long-recognized internationally as a touchstone of certain styles of Chinese wushu, was erected on Song Shan Mountain for the monk Batuo, whose students enjoyed practicing wushu-type exercises in their spare time. Later generations of monks combined chan (Zen) and quan (martial arts) into what is famously known today as Shaolin Quan (Shaolin Wushu).
During the later part of the Qing Dynasty (1644 -1911 AD), military “cold” weapons’ use began to diminish as the use of firearms gradually increased among soldiers. Wushu came to be practiced mainly by the common people, and martial techniques and practices started to be combined with theoretical and philosophical ideas popular amongst the common folk, resulting in hundreds of styles like Xingyi Quan, Bagua Zhang and Taiji Quan emerging. While primarily rooted in martial applications, these styles also placed importance on health and moral principles.
In the early 20th century the establishment of organizations like the Shanghai Jing Wu Physical Culture Society paved the way for wushu’s development into the realm of popular sport. Public performances, training, and competitions became common, further promoting wushu’s practice.
In 1923 the Chinese National Wushu Games were held in Shanghai, and in 1936 a Chinese wushu delegation performed a demonstration at the XI Olympic Games held in Berlin. Wushu continued to develop through the Republican Era and after the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Wushu competition formats and rules were implemented, and teaching methods and materials were standardized, and in 1985 the first International Invitational Wushu Tournament was held in Xi’an, China, and the preparatory committee for the International Wushu Federation (IWUF) was formed. On October 3rd, 1990 the IWUF was officially founded.
Taolu refers to the set routine (form) practice component of wushu. A taolu routine comprises of a continuously connected set of pre-determined techniques choreographed according to certain principles and philosophies to incorporate stylistic principles of attack and defense. These include hand techniques, leg techniques, jumps, sweeps, stances and footwork, seizing, throwing and wrestling, and balances.
Traditionally, taolu routines were compiled to preserve the techniques and tactics of a particular lineage or system, and through regular training would gradually improve a practitioner’s flexibility, stamina, strength, speed, balance, and co-ordination, and would “imprint” a tactical order into practitioners. Taolu routines include individual routines and group routines, as well as duel routines with 2 or more practitioners involved. They have a rich and diverse content, utilizing both bare-handed techniques as well as those performed with weapons.
Sport wushu has developed from traditional wushu and is presented to the world in the form of a modern Olympic-level sport with a perfect combination of ancient practices and modern sports principles. Athletes perform routines (barehanded or with weaponry) based on specific rules, highlighting their athletic strengths.
Routines are appraised by a panel of judges who evaluate different aspects of a performance, namely quality of movements, overall performance and degree of difficulty, and award a score based on an athlete’s performance. Individual taolu routines include optional routines, compulsory routines, choreographed duel/sparring routines and group routines. Taolu competition takes place in a specialized 8m x 14m arena, which comprises of high density foam covered by a low-static carpet.
Sanda is a modern unarmed combat sport that developed from traditional wushu techniques, and primarily makes use of punching, kicking, throwing, wrestling and defensive techniques.
Competition bouts take place on an elevated platform called a “leitai,” which is 80cm in height, 8m in width and 8m in length, and comprises of a frame covered in high density foam with a canvas cover. On the ground surrounding the platform is a protective cushion that is 30cm in height and 2 meters in width. Competing athletes wear protective gear that includes a headguard, chest protector, and gloves, as well as a mouthguard and a jockstrap.
Competition bouts comprise of 3 rounds in total, each lasting two minutes with a one-minute rest period between rounds. Apart from illegal blows and methods, sanda athletes may employ punching, kicking and throwing techniques from all styles of wushu. Valid striking areas are: the head, the trunk (including the chest, abdomen, waist and back), and the legs. The full-contact bouts are free flowing and exciting, and athletes are awarded points by the sideline judges for successfully-executed techniques based on the scoring criteria. An athlete will be declared the winner if he or she wins 2 out of the 3 rounds of a bout, or if his or her opponent is knocked out.
Sanda competition includes 11 weight categories for men and 7 weight categories for women.
Martial Arts techniques
- In addition to Saquan and Faquan, there are other various martial arts including Tai Chi, Nanquan, Xingyiquan, Baguazhang, Bajiquan, Tongbeiquan, Fanziquan, Piguiaquan, Shaolinquan, Cuojuequan, and Chidanquan
- Changquan as a type of Saquan and Faquan: In Changquan, there are three kinds of hand types such as kwan, chang, ku and five types of body types such as ma, bu, huh, and hur. Further, there are related theories such as attitude preemptive attack, action longevity, rapid dominant power, and good luck charm. In addition, there are various martial arts techniques such as stability control. however, each martial art type (quan) has its own characteristic and techniques.
- Tai Chi： Tai Chi is flexibility, gentleness, management techniques. The movement is smooth and round, the shape is shaped according to the movement, the movement is continuous, and the back and forth are consistent. Tai Chi of each kind also has its own characteristics such as large or small house and strength and flexibility.
- Nanquan： Nanquan is popular among the southern regions such as Guangdong and Fujian. The Southeastern region is divided into Honghwa, Yuga, Chaga, Iga, and Manga. Fujian is divided into Yongchun and Ozo. Each moon and wave has its own personality and characteristics. Typical characteristics are power intensity, warmth of the foot, movement of the heart, center of the new person, advancement of the arm, constantly expanding the muscles to stimulate energy
- Xingyiquan： Xingyiquan form is based on the three-body style as the basic posture and resemble 12 animal movements. Features include simple movements, calmness, hand gestures, and strikes.
- Baguazhang: Baguazhang are mainly used to convert from pabo to kubo, and are mainly made of chu, tak, dae, spirit, chun, half, clause, lan. This type includes Yeonjunjujeon, Sesesangyeon, sinyoungbohwal, and sujusubyun.
- Bajiquan：It is a type with the main focus of close attack on the opponent. The power is fierce and helps the power with advance and break.
- Tongbeiquan：The right to self-defense consists of five basic methods. This features unique martial arts technique regarding self-defense depending on the opponent’s attack. You use the sword when the opponent uses hand and you use body technique when the point is taken. When the body is thrown, you shake your wrist, stretch it and strike it far away, and your stamina swings quickly and coolly.
- Fanziquan：Fanziquan is short, short, swift, brave, tightly knit, and fast and agile martial arts technique. This characteristic continues to the body part that hands and feet are faster and precise while the martial arts technique is secretive and powerful to turn the upside down.
- Piguiaquan：Piquiaquan is a martial arts technique that one attacks his/her opponent from a long distance. Its characteristic is that it combines a wide range of attacks with a wide range of attacks. At the time of practice, it is required to twist the back, to strongly fold the arms, to make the arms swift, to gather the wrists, to cross the arms, to force the shoulders and arms through.
- Shaolinquan：Shaolinquan includes Daihongquan, Shaohongquan, Poquan, and others. This martial arts technique is passes from the Shaolin temple in China. Its characteristics are the movements include straight back and straight back, small and dense, tightening your arms when you roll, straightening things straight, having strength, and watering your feet.
- Cuojuequan：Cuojuequan is a martial arts technique that focuses on backing off. IT includes one-step back off, one-step forward, and right and left turn and conversion of feet and hands. Its characteristic is that it protrude for ten minutes.
- Chidanquan：Chidaquan is a local martial arts technique that is from Chidangsol rules. It is relatively strong in craftsmanship and relatively high in operation difficulty.
- Short：knife, sword, dagger, etc.
- Long：spear, lance, long sword, etc.
- Double: double spear, double sword, double lance, double dagger, double knife, etc.
- Continuous：nine-section stick, double stick, short stick, three-section stick, etc.
- Multiple sparring：Daitaquan, and Daikumna, etc.
- Weapon sparring：Daebyukdo, Daejakum, Daechalchang, Daetagon, Dandojincahng, Ssangdojinchang, Pakdojinchang, and Samjulgonjincahng, etc.
- Hands and weapon sparring：Kongsutaldo, Kongsutalcahgn, Kongsupassangchang, etc.
- There are more than six degrees or more of weapons that can be aggregated. It is possible to organize a pattern, the size is the same in appearance, and the operation is the same.